Withdrawal symptoms are a whole different world than alcohol-induced sleep problems. Because on top of sleep disturbances, you can also experience anxiety, shakiness, headaches, brain fog, and a range of other detox symptoms. Research from 2018 corroborates this, suggesting that people experience a lower duration and quality of REM after consuming alcohol.
Laboratory based polysomnographic studies of abstinent alcoholics typically show a
pattern of sleep disturbance with increased wakefulness consistent with self-reports of
persistent sleep disturbance common in this population. Sleep efficiency is a simple index
of the proportion of the time in bed spent asleep and thus a polysomnographic marker of
general sleep quality. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that causes brain activity to slow down. Alcohol has sedative effects that can induce feelings of relaxation and sleepiness, but the consumption of alcohol — especially in excess — has been linked to poor sleep quality and duration. People with alcohol use disorders commonly experience insomnia symptoms.
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The left panel
(KC+) shows the result of averaging responses that included K-complexes. The right
panel (KC-) show the result of averaging responses not including K-complexes. Some of these nerve stems produce serotonin, a chemical that has been linked to the onset of sleep and with the regulation of slow-wave sleep. Other nerve cells produce norepinephrine, which has been found to regulate REM sleep and facilitate arousal. Additionally, research has identified a transitional light sleep stage that occurs at intervals during the sleep period.
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The REM sleep architecture normalized over time with continued recovery (Imatoh et al., 1986). This phenomenon may suggest a normalization of the acrophase of REM sleep with sobriety and may also account for increased REM % during early recovery. In a frequently cited study, decreased alcohol insomnia REM sleep latency and increased REM % was seen at 27 months into recovery (Drummond et al., 1998). These findings contrast with lack of REM sleep abnormalities reported in 2 other studies, as compared to healthy control subjects (Williams and Rundell, 1981, Schiavi et al., 1995).
- And we quickly build a tolerance for the sedative effects of alcohol, which means you may need to drink more to have the same initial sleep-inducing effects.
- The majority of alcoholic patients entering treatment reported insomnia symptoms.
- As the night progresses, this can create an imbalance between slow-wave sleep and REM sleep, resulting in less of the latter and more of the former.
- His research and clinical practice focuses on the entire myriad of sleep disorders.
Because six patients had missing data on critical sleep items as described below, the sample size for data analyses was reduced from 178 to 172. The recruitment sites and a description of these subjects have been reported previously (14). Briefly, about 50% of subjects were recruited from the inpatient alcohol unit at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center and 50% were recruited from inpatient and outpatient alcohol treatment programs of the University of Michigan Medical Center. The use of multiple treatment programs for recruitment insured a demographically heterogeneous sample (14). The occurrence of insomnia and its self-medication with alcohol has not been investigated simultaneously in alcoholic samples (4–6). Nevertheless, other studies provide useful frequency estimates of self-medication.
Alcohol and Insomnia: How Drinking Actually Hurts Your Sleep
Though alcohol may help you fall asleep faster, it can disrupt the important REM stage of your sleep cycle, leading to lack of sleep or sleep disorders like insomnia. Small amounts of alcohol may cause short-term sleep disturbances, but frequent and large quantities of alcohol consumption may lead to chronic insomnia for certain individuals. Researchers have noted a link between long-term alcohol abuse and chronic sleep problems. People can develop a tolerance for alcohol rather quickly, leading them to drink more before bed in order to initiate sleep.
Patients classified with insomnia had significantly longer sleep latency times and lower sleep efficiency values on PSG than patients without insomnia (Table 2). Although not significantly different, the insomnia group had higher WASO values than the group without insomnia. Subjects with DSM-III-R diagnoses of alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a study examining the effects of aging and alcoholism on sleep (17).
2 Links between sleep EEG effects and altered brain structure in alcoholism
Although it is commonly accepted that individuals with alcohol dependence sleep poorly (1–3), few studies have investigated the rates of insomnia in alcoholic patients. Baekeland et al. (4) reported that 36% of 294 alcoholic outpatients had high scores on sleep disturbance as measured by a clinic physician. Similarly, Feuerlein (5) reported that 37% of 184 inpatients and outpatients with alcoholism had “sleep disturbance” as determined by a semi-standardized interview. These insomnia rates (36% to 67%) are higher than those found in the general population (17% to 30%) (7). Insomnia refers to a collection of sleep disorders that lead to waking up at night, trouble falling asleep, and reduced sleep quality.
- REM-off cells involve the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus and noradrenergic
- Alcohol is highly effective at suppressing melatonin, a key facilitator of sleep and regulator of sleep-wake cycles.
- Women were more likely to report being former drinkers than men (24.8% and 12.8% respectively) (Table 2).
- Sleep quality declines after drinking alcohol because the body is unable to enter sleep cycles properly.
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As a result, they may consume alcohol to speed up falling asleep, but evidence shows this technique does not improve sleep quality. Consistent with other studies (8,14–16), baseline insomnia predicted relapse to alcohol. Baseline insomnia remained a predictor of relapse even after controlling for severity of alcohol dependence and depressive symptoms. Contrary to our hypothesis, patients with a history of self-medicating insomnia with alcohol were not significantly more likely to relapse than non-medicating patients. The majority of alcoholic patients entering treatment reported insomnia symptoms.
How Alcohol Affects People With Insomnia
However, in the second half of a night’s sleep, alcohol diminishes the amount of REM sleep. Alcohol’s negative effects on sleep quality worsen after several nights of drinking. During apnea-related breathing episodes – which can https://ecosoberhouse.com/ occur throughout the night – the sleeper may make choking noises. Some studies suggest that alcohol contributes to sleep apnea because it causes the throat muscles to relax, which in turn creates more resistance during breathing.
- Data are drawn from (Feige et al. 2006; Prinz et al. 1980; Rundell et al.
- Animal data indicate that administration of GABAergic antagonists lead to
increased REM (Sanford et al. 2003; Xi, Morales, and Chase 2001, 1999).
- In the absence of continued dosing, alcohol consumed prior to the onset of sleep,
therefore, will not be at a constant level throughout the sleep period.
Alcohol depresses your central nervous system, which means your brain activity, breathing, and heart rate all slow down when you’re intoxicated. For example, those who are sensitive to alcohol might get a rough night of sleep after only one or two cocktails. At any rate, a regular nighttime drinking habit will increase your odds of poor-quality sleep over time. Research on alcohol and sleep shows that moderate-to-heavy drinking has a detrimental effect on sleep. But this is more of a guideline than a rule—simply because the amount of alcohol that causes insomnia is different for everyone.